Affirmative Action Fast Facts

Here is some background information about ...

Posted: Oct 23, 2018 9:05 PM
Updated: Oct 23, 2018 9:05 PM

Here is some background information about affirmative action as well as a few notable court cases.

Affirmative action policies focus on improving opportunities for groups of people, like women and minorities, who have been historically excluded in United States' society. The initial emphasis was on education and employment. President John F. Kennedy was the first president to use the term in an Executive Order.

Society

Societal issues

Affirmative action

Education

Education systems and institutions

Higher education

College and university admissions

US federal court system

US Supreme Court

Academic admissions

Curricula

Decisions and rulings

Discrimination

Government and public administration

Government bodies and offices

Graduate and professional schools

Law and legal system

Legal education

Legal services

Michigan

Midwestern United States

Minority and ethnic groups

North America

Politics

Racism and racial discrimination

Southwestern United States

Texas

United States

Universities and colleges

University of Michigan

US federal government

Fast Facts

Trial and procedure

Diversity

Students and student life

Asian Americans

Continents and regions

Demographic groups

Government organizations - US

Lawsuits and claims

Population and demographics

The Americas

Facts:
Supporters argue that affirmative action is necessary to ensure racial and gender diversity in education and employment. Critics state that it is unfair and causes reverse discrimination.

Racial quotas are considered unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court.

The state of Texas replaced its affirmative action plan with a percentage plan that guarantees the top 10% of high-school graduates a spot in any state university in Texas. California and Florida have similar programs.

Timeline (selected cases):
1954 - The US Supreme Court, in Brown v. Board of Education, rules that the "separate but equal" doctrine violates the Constitution.

1961 - President Kennedy creates the Council on Equal Opportunity in an Executive Order. This ensures that federal contractors hire people regardless of race, creed, color or national origin.

1964 - The Civil Rights Act renders discrimination illegal in the workplace.

1978 - In Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, a notable reverse discrimination case, the Supreme Court rules that colleges cannot use racial quotas because it violates the Equal Protection Clause. As one factor for admission, however, race can be used.

1995 - The University of Michigan rejects the college application of Jennifer Gratz, a top high school student in suburban Detroit who is white.

October 14, 1997 - Gratz v. Bollinger, et al., is filed in federal court in the Eastern District of Michigan. The University of Michigan is sued by white students, including Gratz and Patrick Hamacher, who claim the undergraduate and law school affirmative action policies using race and/or gender as a factor in admissions is a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment or Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

December 3, 1997 - A similar case, Grutter v. Bollinger, is filed in federal court in the Eastern District of Michigan. Barbara Grutter, denied admission to the University of Michigan Law School, claims that other applicants, with lower test scores and grades, were given an unfair advantage due to race.

December 2000 - The judge in the Gratz v. Bollinger case rules that the University of Michigan's undergraduate admissions policy does not violate the standards set by the Supreme Court.

March 2001 - The judge in the Grutter v. Bollinger case rules the University of Michigan Law School's admissions policy is unconstitutional.

December 2001 - The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals hears appeals in both University of Michigan cases.

May 14, 2002 - The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals reverses the district court's decision in Grutter v. Bollinger.

January 17, 2003 - The administration of President George W. Bush files a friend-of-the-court brief with the Supreme Court, opposing the University of Michigan's affirmative action program.

April 1, 2003 - The US Supreme Court hears oral arguments on the two cases. US Solicitor General Theodore Olson offers arguments in support of the plaintiffs.

June 23, 2003 - The Supreme Court rules on Grutter v. Bollinger that the University of Michigan Law School may give preferential treatment to minorities during the admissions process. The Court upholds the law school policy by a vote of five to four.

June 23, 2003 - In Gratz v. Bollinger, the undergraduate policy in which a point system gave specific "weight" to minority applicants is overturned six to three.

December 22, 2003 - The Supreme Court rules that race can be a factor in universities' admission programs but it cannot be an overriding factor. This decision affects the Grutter and Gratz cases.

November 7, 2006 - The Michigan electorate strikes down affirmative action by approving a proposition barring affirmative action in public education, employment, or contracting.

January 31, 2007 - After the Supreme Court sends the case back to district court; the case is dismissed. Gratz and Hamacher settle for $10,000 in administrative costs, but do not receive damages.

2008 - Abigail Noel Fisher, a white woman, sues the University of Texas. She argues that the university should not use race as a factor in admission policies that favor African-American and Hispanic applicants over whites and Asian-Americans.

July 1, 2011 - An appeals court overturns Michigan's 2006 ban on the use of race and/or gender as a factor in admissions or hiring practices.

November 15, 2012 - The US Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals throws out Michigan's 2006 ban on affirmative action in college admissions and public hiring, declaring it unconstitutional.

June 24, 2013 - The Supreme Court sends the University of Texas case back to the lower court for further review without ruling.

October 15, 2013 - The US Supreme Court hears oral arguments in a case concerning Michigan's 2006 law on affirmative action.

April 22, 2014 - In a six to two ruling, the Supreme Court upholds Michigan's ban of using racial criteria in college admissions.

July 15, 2014 - The US Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit upholds the use of race by the University of Texas as a factor in undergraduate admissions to promote diversity on campus. The vote is two to one.

November 17, 2014 - Students for Fair Admissions sues Harvard University, alleging Harvard intentionally discriminates against Asian-Americans. Students for Fair Admissions is run by Edward Blum, a conservative advocate, who sought Asian-Americans rejected by Harvard.

December 9, 2015 - The US Supreme Court hears oral arguments in the University of Texas case regarding race as a factor in admissions policies.

June 23, 2016 - The US Supreme Court upholds the Affirmative Action program by a vote of four to three with Justice Elena Kagan taking no part in the consideration. The ruling allows the limited use of affirmative action policies by schools.

October 15, 2018 - The lawsuit against Harvard filed in 2014 by Students for Fair Admissions goes to trial.

Mississippi Coronavirus Cases

Data is updated nightly.

Confirmed Cases: 61125

Reported Deaths: 1711
CountyConfirmedDeaths
Hinds5209106
DeSoto328027
Madison228154
Rankin212428
Harrison209832
Jackson192934
Jones176557
Forrest163153
Washington148032
Lauderdale132388
Lee123230
Neshoba119487
Lamar111512
Oktibbeha105235
Lowndes97332
Warren96426
Scott95317
Bolivar93932
Copiah90924
Panola90711
Sunflower90622
Lafayette8699
Holmes84347
Leflore83259
Pike82632
Grenada81220
Yazoo77311
Leake76725
Lincoln74339
Wayne73221
Pontotoc7247
Simpson71126
Monroe69750
Coahoma65910
Tate64523
Marion59918
Adams58025
Covington57811
Winston57115
Marshall5668
George5415
Union51913
Newton51611
Attala49524
Tallahatchie49310
Pearl River48236
Walthall44218
Chickasaw43519
Noxubee41710
Claiborne40013
Smith37713
Jasper3758
Calhoun3748
Clay36814
Alcorn3544
Prentiss3376
Hancock32614
Tishomingo3163
Yalobusha31610
Lawrence3135
Itawamba30710
Tippah30412
Clarke29825
Montgomery2913
Humphreys26911
Tunica2656
Carroll24511
Greene22611
Kemper22315
Perry2217
Quitman2211
Amite2105
Jefferson Davis1986
Webster19712
Jefferson1916
Wilkinson18712
Sharkey1801
Stone1483
Choctaw1264
Benton1240
Franklin1142
Issaquena211
Unassigned00

Alabama Coronavirus Cases

Confirmed Cases: 89927

Reported Deaths: 1580
CountyConfirmedDeaths
Jefferson11650225
Mobile8998191
Montgomery6198143
Madison493225
Tuscaloosa391263
Baldwin317522
Shelby300232
Marshall294730
Unassigned263351
Lee249140
Morgan220615
Etowah191425
DeKalb167713
Elmore158437
Calhoun15359
Walker145763
Houston130912
Dallas128023
Russell12201
Franklin118420
Limestone118313
St. Clair118212
Cullman111311
Colbert107612
Lauderdale105312
Autauga101020
Escambia96515
Talladega89013
Jackson8163
Chambers81438
Tallapoosa80478
Dale77619
Butler75135
Blount7223
Covington70420
Coffee7035
Chilton6976
Pike6547
Barbour5625
Lowndes54624
Marion53524
Marengo51514
Clarke4849
Hale44925
Bullock43711
Perry4284
Winston42811
Wilcox4029
Monroe3884
Randolph38810
Conecuh37110
Bibb3643
Pickens3639
Sumter36118
Washington31011
Macon30813
Lawrence3060
Crenshaw2843
Choctaw27312
Henry2433
Greene24011
Cherokee2337
Geneva2260
Clay2165
Lamar1942
Fayette1695
Cleburne1141
Coosa902
Out of AL00
Tupelo
Clear
92° wxIcon
Hi: 91° Lo: 70°
Feels Like: 93°
Columbus
Clear
90° wxIcon
Hi: 90° Lo: 68°
Feels Like: 94°
Oxford
Scattered Clouds
86° wxIcon
Hi: 87° Lo: 66°
Feels Like: 87°
Starkville
Clear
88° wxIcon
Hi: 90° Lo: 65°
Feels Like: 88°
WTVA Radar
WTVA Temperatures
WTVA Severe Weather