Volcanoes Fast Facts

Here's some background information about volcanoes,...

Posted: Mar 30, 2018 8:55 AM
Updated: Mar 30, 2018 8:56 AM

Here's some background information about volcanoes, mountains that open downward to a reservoir of molten rock.

Facts: More than 80% of the Earth's surface, both above and below sea level, is of volcanic origin.

Lava is molten rock from a volcano that reaches the Earth's surface. Liquid rock below the Earth's surface is referred to as magma.

Volcanoes are generally classified into four main types:
-
Cinder cones: These are the simplest type of volcanoes. They are hills, often steep, formed by an accumulation of congealed lava around a vent. When a cinder cone erupts, the ground shakes as magma rises. Then, a powerful blast throws lava, ash, and gas into the air.
Examples: Paricutin in Mexico, Sunset Crater in Arizona.

- Composite volcanoes or stratovolcanoes: These are symmetrical, cone-shaped and have a conduit system through which magma flows to the surface. They can rise 8,000 feet above their surroundings.
Examples: Mount St. Helens, Mount Fuji, Mount Shasta, Mount Cotopaxi, Mount Hood and Mount Rainier.

- Lava domes: These domes are small masses of lava that accumulate around and over the volcano's vent. Lava domes commonly are found inside the craters or on the flanks of large composite volcanoes.
Example: Mont Pel-e.

- Shield volcanoes: These form when lava cools to form a gently sloping dome. The Hawaiian island chain was created by oceanic shield volcanoes.
Examples: Mauna Loa and Kilauea in Hawaii.

There are more than 500 volcanoes that have erupted at least once in the world and 50 of them are located in the United States.

More than 50% of the world's active volcanoes above sea level encircle the Pacific Ocean, forming the "Ring of Fire." The ring stretches from New Zealand to the coast of South America.

In 2010, a volcano eruption in Iceland disrupted air travel for days across Europe. The eruption expelled an ash cloud 30,000 feet into the air. The International Air Transport Authority estimated that the airline industry lost $1.7 billion in revenue due to the disruption.

Deadliest Volcanic Eruptions since 1500 AD.

Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI): The Volcanic Explosivity Index, which measures the relative explosiveness of volcanic eruptions, was devised in 1982. On a scale of 0-to-8, each number represents a tenfold increase in explosive power.

The VEI uses several factors to determine a number, including volume of erupted material, height of eruption column and duration in hours.

Major eruptions: Selected VEI 4 and above (1902 - current): Sources: NOAA Significant Volcanic Eruption Database and Smithsonian volcano database

Note: Dates listed cover the day of peak explosive activity.

May 6, 1902 - Soufri-re St. Vincent on the island of Saint Vincent erupts, resulting in about 1,680 deaths. (VEI 4)

May 8, 1902 - Pel-e on Martinique erupts, killing about 28,000 people. (VEI 4)

October 24, 1902 - Santa Maria in Guatemala erupts, resulting in about 2,500 deaths. (VEI 6)

June 6, 1912 - Novarupta volcano erupts in Alaska, killing two people. It is the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. (VEI 6)

January 20, 1913 - Colima in Mexico erupts. The number of deaths is unknown. (VEI 5)

May 19, 1919 - Kelut in Indonesia erupts, resulting in 5,110 deaths. (VEI 4)

January 21, 1951 - Mount Lamington in Papua New Guinea erupts and kills nearly 3,000 people. (VEI 4)

March 17, 1963 - Agung in Indonesia erupts, killing more than 1,000 people. (VEI 5)

March 29 1982 - El Chich-n in Mexico erupts, resulting in 1,879 deaths. (VEI 5)

May 18, 1980 - Mount St. Helens in Washington erupts, killing 57 people. (VEI 5)

June 15, 1991 - Pinatubo in the Philippines erupts, killing about 350 people. (VEI 6)

Mississippi Coronavirus Cases

Data is updated nightly.

Cases: 145636

Reported Deaths: 3745
CountyCasesDeaths
DeSoto973199
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Harrison6898109
Jackson6178119
Rankin5319100
Lee487695
Madison4666106
Forrest371386
Jones346788
Lauderdale3355144
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Washington3122107
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Panola215849
Marshall209650
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Monroe191477
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Tate165451
Union163925
Pike160658
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Scott150729
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Tallahatchie96327
Clarke88853
Clay87127
Jasper81222
Walthall75328
Stone73114
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Montgomery72125
Carroll70614
Lawrence70314
Yalobusha70027
Noxubee69717
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Perry65426
Tunica59619
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Claiborne57616
Jefferson Davis55017
Humphreys52918
Amite51814
Benton48717
Quitman4816
Webster42114
Kemper41918
Wilkinson38722
Jefferson34211
Franklin3265
Choctaw3117
Sharkey30717
Issaquena1124
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Alabama Coronavirus Cases

Cases: 239318

Reported Deaths: 3532
CountyCasesDeaths
Jefferson31391491
Mobile19562361
Tuscaloosa12813154
Madison12741146
Montgomery12198235
Shelby1000577
Baldwin847398
Lee764466
Morgan634348
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Marshall607954
Etowah606565
Houston517038
DeKalb474736
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Limestone413744
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Elmore400762
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Walker3588108
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Jackson307624
Colbert301941
Blount285539
Autauga268641
Franklin247833
Coffee239715
Dale230354
Dallas224531
Russell22053
Chilton219638
Covington216833
Escambia197431
Chambers173749
Tallapoosa173391
Pike157514
Clarke156319
Marion136535
Winston129923
Lawrence124836
Geneva12028
Pickens119418
Marengo119124
Barbour117010
Bibb116217
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Randolph100921
Cherokee100824
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Clay90223
Washington90219
Fayette87316
Henry8496
Lowndes79129
Monroe78111
Cleburne75714
Macon72321
Crenshaw70730
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Conecuh68314
Perry6756
Lamar6508
Wilcox63118
Sumter57122
Choctaw41913
Greene41418
Coosa3374
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