On this day in history, April 23
215 BC – A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Lake Trasimene.
1343 – Estonia: St. George's Night Uprising.
1635 – The first public school in the United States, Boston Latin School, is founded in Boston, Massachusetts.
1661 – King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland is crowned in Westminster Abbey.
1910 – Theodore Roosevelt makes his "The Man in the Arena" speech.
1918 – World War I: The British Royal Navy makes a raid in an attempt to neutralise the Belgian port of Bruges-Zeebrugge.
1927 – Cardiff City defeat Arsenal in the FA Cup Final, the only time it has been won by a team not based in England.
1932 – The 153-year old De Adriaan Windmill in Haarlem, Netherlands burns down. It is rebuilt and reopens exactly 70 years later.
1935 – The Polish Constitution of 1935 is adopted.
1940 – The Rhythm Night Club fire at a dance hall in Natchez, Mississippi, kills 198 people.
1942 – World War II: Baedeker Blitz – German bombers hit Exeter, Bath and York in retaliation for the British raid on Lübeck.
1945 – Adolf Hitler's designated successor Hermann Göring sends him a telegram asking permission to take leadership of the Third Reich, which causes Hitler to replace him with Joseph Goebbels and Karl Dönitz.
1949 – Chinese Civil War: Establishment of the People's Liberation Army Navy.
1951 – American journalist William N. Oatis is arrested for espionage by the Communist government of Czechoslovakia.
1967 – Soviet space program: Soyuz 1 (Russian: Союз 1, Union 1) a manned spaceflight carrying cosmonaut Colonel Vladimir Komarov is launched into orbit.
1968 – Vietnam War: Student protesters at Columbia University in New York City take over administration buildings and shut down the university.
1985 – Coca-Cola changes its formula and releases New Coke. The response is overwhelmingly negative, and the original formula is back on the market in less than 3 months.
1993 – Sri Lankan politician Lalith Athulathmudali is assassinated while addressing a gathering, approximately 4 weeks ahead of the Provincial Council elections for the Western Province.